Publications - Yu-li Wang
[1978a] Taylor, D.L. and Wang, Y.-L. Molecular cytochemistry: incorporation of fluorescently labeled actin into living cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75:857-861.
[1979a] Wang, Y.-L. and Taylor, D.L. Distribution of fluorescently labeled actin in living sea urchin eggs during early development. J. Cell Biol. 82:672-679.
[1980a] Wang, Y.-L. and Taylor, D.L. Preparation and characterization of a new molecular cytochemical probe: 5-iodoacetamidofluorescein-labeled actin. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 28:1198-1206.
[1980b] Taylor, D.L. and Wang, Y.-L. Fluorescently labeled molecules as probes of the structure and function of living cells. Nature 284:405-410.
[1981a] Wang, Y.-L. and Taylor, D.L. Probing the dynamic equilibrium of actin polymerization by fluorescence energy transfer. Cell 27:429-436.
[1981b] Wang, Y.-L. and Taylor, D.L. Exchange of 1,N6-etheno-ATP with actin-bound nucleotides as a tool for following the steady-state exchange of subunits in F-actin solutions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78:5503-5507.
[1982a] Wang, Y.-L., Lanni, F., McNeil, P.L., Ware, B.R. and Taylor, D.L. Mobility of cytoplasmic and membrane associated actin in living cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79:4660-4664.
[1982b] Wang, Y.-L., Heiple, J.M. and Taylor, D.L. Fluorescent analog cytochemistry of contractile proteins. Methods Cell Biol. 24:1-11.
[1983a] Wang, Y.-L., Bonder, E.M., Mooseker, M.S. and Taylor, D.L. Effects of the intestinal microvillar 95k-dalton protein (villin) on the polymerization and subunit exchange of actin. Cell Motility 3:151-165.
[1984a] Wang, Y.-L.Reorganization of actin filament bundles in living fibroblasts. J. Cell Biol. 99:1478-1485.
[1985a] McKenna, N.M., Meigs, J.B. and Wang, Y.-L. Identical distribution of fluorescently labeled brain and muscle actins in living cardiac fibroblasts and myocytes. J. Cell Biol. 100:292-296.
[1985b] Wang, Y.-L. Exchange of actin subunits at the leading edge of living fibroblasts: possible roles in treadmilling. J. Cell Biol. 101:597-602.
[1985c] McKenna, N.M., Meigs, J.B. and Wang, Y.-L. Exchangeability of alpha-actinin in living cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts. J. Cell Biol. 101:2223-2232.
[1986a] Meigs, J.B. and Wang, Y.-L. Reorganization of alpha-actinin and vinculin induced by a phorbol ester in living cells. J. Cell Biol. 102:1430-1438.
[1986b] Wang, Y.-L. Redistribution of alpha-actinin and vinculin in living cells following ATP depletion and replenishment. Exp. Cell Res. 167:16-28.
[1986c] McKenna, N.M. and Wang, Y.-L. Possible translocation of alpha-actinin and actin along stress fibers. Exp. Cell Res. 167:95-105.
[1986d] McKenna, N.M. Johnson, C.S. and Wang, Y.-L. Formation and alignment of Z-lines in living chick myotubes microinjected with rhodamine-labeled alpha-actinin. J. Cell Biol. 103:2163-2171.
[1987a] Stickel, S.K. and Wang, Y.-L. Alpha-actinin containing aggregates in transformed cells are dynamic structures. J. Cell Biol. 104:1521-1526.
[1987b] Wang, Y.-L. and Goren, M.B. Sequential and differential delivery of lysosomal fluorescent probes into phagosomes in mouse peritoneal macrophages. J. Cell Biol. 104:1749-1754.
[1987c] Wang, Y.-L. Mobility of filamentous actin in living cytoplasm. J. Cell Biol. 105:2811-2816.
[1988a] Stickel, S.K. and Wang, Y.-L. Synthetic peptide GRGDS induces dissociation of alpha-actinin and vinculin from the sites of focal contacts. J. Cell Biol. 107:1231-1239.
[1988b] Johnson, C.S., McKenna, N.M. and Wang, Y.-L.Association of microinjected myosin and its subfragments with myofibrils in living muscle cells. J. Cell Biol. 107:2213-2221.
[1988c] McKenna, N.M., Johnson, C.S., Konkel, M.E. and Wang, Y.-L. Organization of myosin in living muscle and non-muscle cells.
in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Muscle Development, (L. Kedes and F. Stockdale, eds.) Alan R. Liss, New York, pp.237-246.
[1989a] McKenna, N.M., Wang, Y.-L. and Konkel M.E. Formation and movement of myosin-containing structures in living fibroblasts. J. Cell Biol. 109:1163-1172.
[1989b] Wang, Y.-L. Fluorescent analogue cytochemistry: tracing functional protein components in living cells. Methods Cell Biol. 29:1-12.
[1989c] McKenna, N.M. and Wang, Y.-L. Culturing cells on the microscope stage. Methods Cell Biol. 29:195-205.
[1990a] Sanders, M.C. and Wang, Y.-L. Exogenous nucleation sites fail to induce detectable polymerization of actin in living NRK cells. J. Cell Biol. 110:359-365.
[1990b] Cao, L.-G. and Wang, Y.-L. Mechanism of the formation of contractile ring in dividing cultured animal cells. I. Recruitment of preexisting actin filaments into the cleavage furrow. J. Cell Biol. 110:1089-1095.
[1990c] Cao, L.-G. and Wang, Y.-L. Mechanism of the formation of contractile ring in dividing cultured animal cells. II. Cortical movement of actin filaments into the cleavage furrow. J. Cell Biol. 111:1905-1911.
[1990d] Wang, Y.-L. Analysis of structural dynamics in living cells with fluorescence video microscopy.
in Optical Microscopy for Biology, (B. Herman and K. Jacobson, eds), Wiley-Liss, New York, pp.449-458.
[1990e] Wang, Y.-L. and Sanders, M.C.Analysis of cytoskeletal structures by the microinjection of fluorescent probes.
in Non-invasive Techniques in Cell Biology (S. Grinstein and J.K. Foskett, eds), Wiley-Liss, New York, pp.177-212.
[1991a] Fishkind, D.J., Cao, L.-G. and Wang, Y.-L. Microinjection of the catalytic fragement of myosin light chain kinase into dividing cells: Effects on mitosis and cytokinesis. J. Cell Biol. 114:967-975.
[1991b] Wang, J., Cao, L.-G., Wang, Y.-L. and Pederson, T. Localization of pre-messenger RNA at discrete nuclear sites. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 88:7391-7395.
[1991c] Sanders, M.C. and Wang, Y.-L. Assembly of actin cortex occurs at distal ends of growing neurites. J. Cell Sci., 100:771-780.
[1991d] Wang, Y.-L. Preparation and characterization of tetramethylrhodamine-labeled myosin. Methods Enzymol. 196:497-505.
[1991e] Wang, Y.-L. Dynamics of the cytoskeleton in live cells. Curr. Opinion Cell Biol. 3:27-32.
[1992a] Cao, L.-G., Babcock, G.G., Rubenstein, P.A. and Wang, Y.-L. Effects of profilin and profilactin on actin structure and function in living cells. J. Cell Biol. 117:1023-1029.
[1992b] Sanders, M.C., Goldstein, A.L. and Wang, Y.-L. Thymosin b4 is a potent regulator of actin polymerization in living cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:4678-4682.
[1992c] Wang, Y.-L. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of cytoskeletal organization and dynamics.
in Cytoskeleton: A Practical Approach (K. L. Carraway and C.A.C. Carraway, eds), Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp.1-22.
[1993a] Cao, L.-G., Fishkind, D.J. and Wang, Y.-L.Localization and dynamics of nonfilamentous actin in cultured cells. J. Cell Biol. 123:173-181.
[1993b] Fishkind, D.J. and Wang, Y.-L. Orientation and three-dimensional organization of actin filaments in dividing cultured cells. J. Cell Biol. 123:837-848.
[1994a] Wang, Y.-L., Silverman, J.D. and Cao, L.-G. Single particle tracking of surface receptor movement during cell division. J. Cell Biol. 127:963-971.
[1994b] Wang, Y.-L. Microinjection of proteins into somatic cells.
in Handbook of Cell Biology (J.E. Celis, ed.), Academic Press, San Diego. pp.16-21.
[1995a] Jacobson, M.R., Cao, L.-G., Wang, Y.-L. and Pederson, T. Dynamic localization of Rnase MRP RNA in the nucleolus observed by fluorescent RNA cytochemistry in living cells. J. Cell Biol. 131:1649-1658.
[1995b] Fishkind, D.J. and Wang, Y.-L. New Horizons for Cytokinesis. Curr. Opinion Cell Biol. 7:23-31.
[1996a] Cao, L.-G. and Wang, Y.-L. Signals from the spindle midzone are required for the stimulation of cytokinesis in cultured epithelial cells. Mol. Biol. Cell 7:225-232.
[1996b] Pelham, R.J. Jr., Lin, J.J.-C. and Wang, Y.-L. A high-molecular mass non-muscle tropomyosin isoform stimulates retrograde organelle transport. J. Cell Sci. 109:981-989.
[1996c] Tarachandani, A. and Wang, Y.-L. Site-directed mutagenesis enabled preparation of a functional fluorescent analog of profilin: biochemical characterization and localization in living cells. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 34:313-323.
[1996d] Fishkind, D.J., Silverman, J.D. and Wang, Y.-L. Function of spindle microtubules in directing cortical movement and actin filament organization in dividing cultured cells. J. Cell Sci. 109:2041-2051.
[1996e] Anderson, K.I., Wang, Y.-L. and Small, J.V. Coordination of protrusion and translocation of the keratocyte involves rolling of the cell body. J. Cell Biol. 134:1209-1218.
[1996f] Wheatley, S.P. and Wang, Y.-L. Midzone microtubule bundles are continuously required for cytokinesis in cultured epithelial cells. J. Cell Biol. 135:981-989.
[1997a] Jacobson, M.R., Cao, L.-G., Taneja, K., Singer, R.H., Wang, Y.-L. and Pederson, T. RNase P: Nucleolar association of the RNA subunit. J. Cell Sci. 110:829-837.
[1997b] Wheatley, S.P., Hinchcliffe, E.H., Glotzer, M., Hyman, A., Sluder, G. and Wang, Y.-L. CDK1 inactivation regulates anaphase spindle dynamics and cytokinesis in vivo. J. Cell Biol. 138:385-393.
[1997c] Jacobson, M.R., Pederson, T. and Wang, Y.-L. Conjugation of fluorescent probes to proteins and nucleic acids.
in Handbook of Cell Biology, Vol. IV (J.E. Celis, ed.), Academic Press, San Diego., pp.5-10.
[1997d] Pelham, R.J. Jr. and Wang, Y.-L.Cell locomotion and focal adhesions are regulated by substrate flexibility. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:13661-13665.
[1998a] Wang, Y.-L. Digital deconvolution of fluorescence images for biologists. Methods Cell Biol. 56:305-315.
[1998b] Wheatley, S.P. and Wang,Y.-L. Fluorescence immunolocalization. Methods Cell Biol. 57:313-332.
[1998c] Wang, Y.-L. and Pelham, R.J. Jr. Preparation of a flexible, porous polyacrylamide substrate for mechanical studies of cultured cells. Methods Enzymol. 298:489-496.
[1998d] Wheatley, S.P., O'Connell, C.B. and Wang, Y.-L. Inhibition of chromosomal separation provides insights into cleavage furrow stimulation in cultured epithelial cells. Mol. Biol. Cell 9:2173-2184.
[1999a] O'Connell, C.B., Wheatley, S.P., Ahmed, S. and Wang Y.-L. The small GTP-binding protein Rho regulates cortical activities in cultured cells during division. J. Cell Biol. 144:305-313.
[1999b] Dembo, M. and Wang, Y.-L. Stresses at the cell-to-substrate interface during locomotion of fibroblasts. Biophys. J. 76:2307-2316.
[1999c] Pelham, R.J. Jr. and Wang Y.-L. High resolution detection of mechanical forces exerted by locomoting fibroblasts on the substrate. Mol. Biol. Cell 10:935-945.
[2000a] O'Connell, C.B. and Wang, Y.-L. Mammalian spindle orientation and position respond to changes in cell shape in a dynein-dependent fashion. Mol. Biol. Cell 11:1765-1774.
[2000b] Lo, C.-M., Wang, H.-B., Dembo, M. and Wang, Y.-L. Cell movement is guided by the rigidity of the substrates. Biophys. J. 79:144-152.
[2000c] Kaverina, I., Krylyshkina, O., Gimona, M., Beningo, K., Wang, Y.-L. and Small, J.V. Enforced polarization and locomotion of fibroblasts lacking microtubules. Curr. Biol. 10:739-742.
[2000d] Wang, H.-B., Dembo, M. and Wang, Y.-L. Substrate flexibility regulates growth and apoptosis of normal but not transformed cells. Am. J. Physiol. 279:C1345-C1350.
[2000e] Faulkner, N.E., Dujardin, D.L., Tai, C.Y., Vaughan, K.T., O'Connell, C.B., Wang Y.-L. and Vallee, R.B. A role for the lissencephaly gene LIS1 in mitosis and cytoplasmic dynein function. Nature Cell Biol. 2:784-791.
[2001a] Munevar, S., Dembo, M. and Wang, Y.-L. Traction force microscopy of normal and transformed fibroblasts. Biophys. J. 80:1744-1757.
[2001b] O'Connell, C.B., Warner, A.K. and Wang, Y.-L. Distinct roles of the equatorial and polar cortices in the cleavage of adherent cells. Curr. Biol. 11:702-707.
[2001c] Beningo, K.A., Dembo, M., Kaverina, I., Small, J.V. and Wang, Y.-L. Nascent focal adhesions are responsible for the generation of strong propulsive forces in migrating fibroblasts. J. Cell Biol. 153:881-887.
[2001d] Wang, H.-B., Dembo, M., Hanks, S.K. and Wang, Y.-L. Focal adhesion kinase is involved in mechanosensing during fibroblast migration. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:11295-11300.
[2001e] Munevar, S., Wang, Y.-L. and Dembo, M. Distinct roles of frontal and rear cell-substrate adhesions in fibroblast migration. Mol. Biol. Cell.12:3947-3954.
[2001f] Wang, Y.-L. The mechanism of cytokinesis: reconsideration and reconciliation. Cell Struct. Funct. 26:633-638.
[2002a] Beningo, K.A. and Wang, Y.-L. Flexible substrata for the detection of traction forces. Trends Cell Biol. 12:79-84.
[2002b] Beningo, K.A. and Wang, Y.-L. Fc-receptor mediated phagocytosis is regulated by mechanical properties of the target. J. Cell Sci. 115:849-856.
[2002c] Kaverina, I., Krylyshkina, O., Beningo, K., Anderson, K., Wang, Y.-L. and Small, J.V. Tensile stress stimulates microtubule outgrowth in living cells. J. Cell Sci. 115:2283-2291.
[2002d] Murata-Hori, M., Tatsuka, M. and Wang, Y.-L. Probing the dynamics and functions of Aurara B kinase in living cells during mitosis and cytokinesis. Mol. Biol. Cell 13:1099-1108.
[2002e] Murata-Hori, M. and Wang, Y.-L. The kinase activity of aurora B is required for kinetochore-microtubule interactions, bi-directional chromosomal movements, and spindle microtubule organization during mitosis. Curr. Biol. 12:894-899.
[2002f] Murata-Hori, M. and Wang, Y.-L. Both midzone and astral microtubules are involved in the delivery of cytokinesis signals to the equatorial cortex: insights from the mobility of Aurora B. J. Cell Biol. 159:45-53.
[2002g] Harrington, K.S., Javed A., Drissi, H., McNeil, S., Lian, J.B., Stein, J.S., van Wijnen, A.J., Wang, Y.-L. and Stein G.S. Transcription factors RUNX1/AML1 and RUNX2/Cbfa1 dynamically associate with stationary subnuclear domains. J. Cell Sci. 115:4167-4176.
[2002h] Beningo, K.A., Lo, C.-M. and Wang, Y.-L. Flexible polyacrylamide substrata for the analysis of mechanical interactions at cell-substratum adhesions. Methods Cell Biol. 69:325-339.
[2002i] Marganski, W.A., Dembo, M. and Wang, Y.-L. Measurements of cell-generated deformations on flexible substrata using correlation-based optical flow. Methods Enzymol. 361:197-211.
[2002j] Kaverina, I., Krylyshkina, O., Beningo, K.A., Anderson, K., Wang, Y.-L. and Small, J.V. Tensile stress stimulates microtubule outgrowth in living cells. J. Cell Sci. 115:2283-2291.
[2003a] Wang, Y.-L. Computational restoration of fluorescence images: noise reduction, deconvolution, and pattern recognition. Methods Cell Biol. 72:337-348.
[2004a] Munevar, S, Wang, Y.-L. and Dembo, M. Regulation of mechanical interactions between fibroblasts and the substrate by stretch-activated calcium entry. J. Cell Sci. 117:85-92.
[2004b] Lo, C.-M., Buxton, D.B., Chua G.C., Dembo, M., Adelstein, R.S. and Wang, Y.-L. Nonmuscle myosin IIB is involved in the guidance of fibroblast migration. Mol. Biol. Cell 15:982-989.
[2004c] Wang, Y.-L., Burridge, K., Dembo, M., Gabbiani, G., Hanks, S.K., Hosoya, H., Janmey, P., Karlsson, R., Lindberg, U.,
Mabuchi, I., Otey, C., Rottner, K., Small, J.V., Wang, C.-L.A. and Zigmond, S.Biomedical Research Publication System. Science 303:1974-1976.
[2004d] Beningo, K.A., Dembo, M. and Wang, Y.-L. Responses of fibroblasts to anchorage of dorsal extracellular matrix receptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:18024-18029.
[2004e] Shiu, Y.T., Marganski, W.A., Usami, S., Schwartz, M.A., Wang, Y.-L., Dembo, M. and Chien, S. Rho mediates shear-enhancement of endothelial cell migration and traction force generation. Biophys. J. 86:2558-2565.
[2005a] Murata-Hori, M., Sluder, G. and Wang, Y.-L. Regulation of cell cycle by the anaphase spindle midzone. BMC Cell Biol. 5:49.
[2005b] Guha, M., Zhou, M. and Wang, Y.-L. Cortical actin turnover during cytokinesis requires myosin II. Curr. Biol. 15:732-736.
[2005c] Wang, Y.-L. The mechanism of cortical ingression during early cytokinesis: thinking beyond the contractile ring hypothesis. Trends Cell Biol. 15:581-588.
[2005d] Murata-Hori, M. and Wang, Y.-L. Microinjection of mRNA into somatic cells. eLS.
[2006a] Discher, D., Janmey, P. and Wang, Y.-L. Tissue cells feel and respond to the stiffness of their substrates. Science 310:1139-1143.
[2006b] Warner, A.K., Keen, J.H. and Wang, Y.-L. Dynamics of membrane clathrin-coated structures during cytokinesis. Traffic 7:205-215.
[2006c] Guo, W.H., Frey, M.T., Burnham N.A. and Wang, Y.-L. Substrate rigidity regulates the formation and maintenance of tissues. Biophys. J. 90:2213-2220.
[2006d] Frey, M.T., Tsai, I.Y., Russell, T.P., Hanks, S.K. and Wang, Y.-L. Cellular responses to 3D substrate topography: role of myosin II and focal adhesion kinase. Biophys. J. 90:3774-3782.
[2006e] Beningo, K.A., Hamao, K., Dembo, M., Wang, Y.-L. and Hosoya, H. Traction forces of fibroblasts are regulated by the Rho-dependent kinase but not by the myosin light chain kinase. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 456:224-231.
[2006f] Wang, Y.-L. Introduction to fluorescence imaging of live cells - an annotated checklist.
in Cell Biology, A Laboratory Handbook, 3rd Edition, Vol III (J.E. Celis, ed.), Academic Press, San Diego. pp.107-110.
[2006g] Wang, Y.-L., Hahn, K.L., Murphy, R.F. and Horwitz, A.F. From imaging to understanding: Frontiers in live cell imaging. Bethesda, MD April 19-21, 2006. J. Cell Biol. 174:481-484.
[2007a] Mader, C.C., Hinchcliffe, E.H. and Wang, Y.-L. Probing cell shape regulation with patterned substratum: requirement of myosin II-mediated contractility. Soft Matter 3:357-363.
[2007b] Beningo, K.A. and Wang, Y.-L. Double-hydrogel substrates as a model system for 3D cell culture.
in Adhesion Protein Protols, 2nd Edition (A.S. Coutts, ed.), Humana Press, Totowa. pp.203-211.
[2007c] Wang, Y.-L. Flux at focal adhesions: slippage clutch, mechanical gauge, or signal depot. Science STKE 377:pe 10.
[2007d] Frey, M.T, Engler, A., Discher, D.E., Lee, J., and Wang, Y.-L. Microscopic methods for measuring the elasticity of gel substrates for cell culture: microspheres, microindenters, and atomic force microscopy. Methods Cell Biol. 83:48-63.
[2007e] Mukhina, S., Wang, Y.-L., and Murata-Hori, M. Alpha-actinin is required for tightly regulated remodeling of the actin cortical network during cytokinesis. Dev. Cell 13:554-569.
[2007f] Wang, Y.-L. Noise-induced systematic errors in ratio imaging: serious artifacts and correction with multi-resolution denoising. J. Microsc. 228:123-131.
[2007g] Guo, W.H., and Wang, Y.-L. Retrograde fluxes of focal adhesion proteins in response to cell migration and mechanical signals. Mol. Biol. Cell. 18:4519-4527.
[2008a] Zhou, M., and Wang, Y.-L. Distinct pathways for the early recruitment of myosin II and actin to the cytokinetic furrow. Mol. Biol. Cell. 19:318-326.
[2008b] Iwasaki T., and Wang, Y.-L. Cytoplasmic force gradient in migrating adherent cells. Biophys. J. 94:L35-L37.
[2008c] Satulovsky, J., Lui, R., and Wang, Y.-L. Exploring the control circuit of cell migration by mathematical modeling. Biophys. J. 94:3671-3683.
[2008d] Undyala, V.V., Dembo, M., Cembrola, K., Perrin, B.J., Huttenlocher, A., Elce, J.S., Greer, P.A., Wang, Y.-L. and Beningo, K.A. The calpain small subunit regulates cell-substrate mechanical interactions during fibroblast migration. J. Cell Sci. 121:3581-3588.
[2009a] Frey, M.T., and Wang, Y.-L. A photo-modulatable material for probing cellular responses to substrate rigidity. Soft Matter 5:1918-1924.
[2009b] Guo, W.-H. and Wang, Y.-L. Micropatterning cell–substrate adhesions using linear polyacrylamide as the blocking agent. In Live Cell Imaging (R.D. Goldman, J.R. Swedlow, D.L. Spector, eds), pp. 43-52. Cold Spring Harbor Lab Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.
[2011a] Rape, A.D., Guo, W.-H., and Wang, Y.-L. The regulation of traction force in relation to cell shape and focal adhesions. Biomaterials 32:2043-2051.
[2011b] Rape, A.D., Guo, W.-H., and Wang, Y.-L. Responses of cells to adhesion-mediated signals: A universal mechanism. in Mechanobiology of Cell-Cell and Cell-Matrix Interactions, A.W. Johnson and B. Harley, eds., Springer, Heidelberg.
[2011c] Hoffecker, I.T., Guo, W.-H., and Wang, Y.-L. Assessing the spatial resolution of cellular rigidity sensing using a micropatterned hydrogel-photoresist composite. Lab Chip 11:3538-3544.
[2011d] Rape, A.D., Guo, W.-H., and Wang, Y.-L. Microtubule depolymerization induces traction force increase through two distinct pathways. J. Cell Sci. 124:4233-4240.
[2012a] Guo, W.-H., and Wang, Y.-L. A three-component mechanism for fibroblast migration with a contractile cell body that couples a myosin II-independent propulsive anterior to a myosin II-dependent resistive tail. Mol. Biol. Cell. 23:1657-1663.
[2013a] Chang, S.S., Guo, W.-H., Kim, Y., and Wang, Y.-L. Guidance of cell migration by substrate dimension. Biophys. J. 104:313-321.
[2013b] Zhang, J., Guo, W.-H., Rape, A.D., and Wang, Y.-L. Micropatterning cell adhesion on polyacrylamide hydrogels. In Cell-Cell Interactions: Methods and Protocols (T.A. Baudino, ed.), Springer, New York, in press.